Category: Animals

Divorce due to Third Person and Outer Child Status

by ArestePahleviZ on / Animals

Indeed, at the trial of a divorce suit, especially at a peace hearing, both husband and wife must come in person. Although both may represent to their proxy, but for the purposes of the examination, the judge may order both to present themselves. Is the divorce workable without your presence / consent? If what you mean is that you (as a defendant) did not come at all and also do not represent at all to the power of attorney, then the judge can pass the verdict of verstek.

Regarding the legal status of the child of your husband and his lover, there are at least two possibilities that can happen that is your husband’s lover gave birth before marriage or after marriage:

The first possibility, if the concerned child gave birth before marriage, then legally, children born outside marriage have a civil relationship with his mother and his mother’s family and with men as his father who can be proven on the basis of science and technology and / or other evidence according to the law has blood relations, including civil relationships with his father’s family.

The second possibility is pregnant mating. By law, a pregnant woman out of wedlock, can be mated to the man who impregnated her. Marriage with the pregnant woman can be performed without waiting for the birth of her child. With the marriage being held at the time of the pregnant woman, there is no need for marriage after the child is born. The child born of the marriage status is the legitimate child of both.

If Defendant Not Attending the Separation Trial Process

In principle, in the process of divorce sessions in force in Indonesia, both parties (husbands and wives) must be present at the hearing in order to make peace efforts between them. This matter has been arranged in Article 130 paragraph (1) Herzien Inlandsch Reglement (HIR) jo. Article 31 of Government Regulation Number 9 Year 1975 concerning Implementation of Law Number 1 Year 1974 regarding Marriage (“PP 9/1975”).

However, a spouse or husband is permitted to be absent from the divorce proceedings by authorizing the other party to represent the person in the divorce trial. [1]

However, if you are Muslim, the provisions of the ceremony will be based on Law Number 7 of 1989 on Religious Courts (“Law 7/1989”) as amended by Act Number 3 of 2006 (“Law 3/2006”) and amended the second time by Law Number 50 Year 2009 (“Law 50/2009”).

Article 82 paragraph (1) and (2) of Law 7/1989 regulate:

(1) At the first hearing of a divorce suit, the Judge tries to reconcile the parties.

(2) In such peace proceedings, the husband and wife shall come personally, except where one of the parties residing abroad, and unable to come personally, may be represented by its special authorized power.

(3) If both parties reside abroad, then the plaintiff at the peace hearing must face personally.

(4) As long as the case has not been decided, a conciliatory effort can be made at each hearing.

In relation to the presence of a spouse in court, Article 142 Paragraph (2) of Presidential Instruction No. 1 of 1991 on the Propagation of the Compilation of Islamic Law (“KHI”) is also mentioned that in the case of a husband and wife representing to his / her proxy, for the purposes of examination, the Judge may order concerned to present itself.

So, we can know that indeed in the trial of divorce suits, especially in peace hearings, both husband and wife must come in person. Although both may represent to their proxy, but for the purposes of the examination, the judge may order both to present themselves.

Is the divorce workable without your presence / consent? If what you mean is (as a defendant) does not arrive at all and also does not represent at all to his / her proxy, then under Article 125 HIR the judge may issue a verdict of verstek.

Verstek’s verdict is a verdict imposed if a defendant is absent or not represents his / her power to face even if he or she has been properly summoned. If the defendant did not file a verzet (verdict) verdict against the verdict of the verstek, then the ruling shall be deemed a permanent legal ruling. A further explanation of this verdict can be found in the Verstek Decision and Court Bond Article.


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Religious Judge Shares Divorce Mediation Experience

by ArestePahleviZ on / Animals

Supreme Court Regulation (Perma) no. 1 of 2016 on Mediation Procedures as a substitute for Perma no. 1 Year 208 allows judges in a public court or religious court to mediate the parties to the dispute. Pengacara Perceraian For trials of mediation practice, 9 state courts and 9 religious courts have been established.As a result, throughout 2015 the level of successful mediation in religious courts is higher than that of the district courts Pengacara perceraianĀ For example, theĀ  success of the highest mediation cases in the district court was occupied by the District Court (PN) of Depok by 25 percent. The highest, at the North Jakarta Religious Court of 70 percent Pengacara Perceraian, is dominated by divorce mediation or it can be called ‘heart dispute’.

Pengacara Perceraian

One of the members of the MA Mediation Working Group, Mohammad Noor, said mediation in religious courts usually involves divorce disputes, property (inheritance, joint property), sharia-related banking disputes with sharia banks. However, the mediation of divorce cases is usually more than the mediation of other cases.

He explained the settlement of mediation divorce case is unique because husband and wife, his heart was emotionally psychological. The first step that mediators make mediation as a reflection space to build their suggestion to communicate well.
“When we want to communicate we hear what the problem? there is not a workable solution to solve the problem? “Mohammad Noor said during the 7th Asia Pacific Mediation Forum conference in Mataram, West Nusa Tenggara, Friday (12/2).
He explained the target of divorce mediation is usually directed to reconcile both parties (husband and wife) and encourage divorce in a good way. Because, the fact can be divorce can not be reconciled, but the effect of divorce law can be mediated. Like, parenting agreements (hadlonah), wife and children’s living, joint possessions.
If the suggestion is already awakened, live deal agreed between them. For example, the wife feels uncomfortable should be agreed to the husband’s actions so that his wife comfortable, so they can get back together. “Even if still must divorce, of course in a good way according to the letter of Al-Baqarah: 229,” said Judge of the Cilegon Religious Court.

Noor explained, there are several ways the process of mediation divorce cases. First, usually religious judges who directly mediate the parties who want to divorce. The second way, if required religious judges can call representatives from the family of the wife and husband or called hakam. Third, mediation as regulated by Perma no. 1 of 2016 on Court Mediation Procedures. “It is a mediation instrument regulated by the Marriage Law, Religious Judicature Law, and Mediation Perma,” he said.

It’s heart-wrenching
Vice Chairman of the Religious Courts of Bekasi Siti Zurbaniyah said the role of mediators of divorce cases is more inspiring to their hearts concerning the interests of children. Because, married couples will quickly return to the position of their hearts when remembering the interests of their children. Although they still decide to divorce there are consequences related to immature child care and shared property that need to be mediated.

“When they are broken married of course the children become victims. We love examples due to divorce, children become victims of drugs, juvenile delinquency, promiscuity. They can think again to divorce and can throw away the egoism of their parents for the sake of the child, so it can get along again, “said Siti Zurbaniyahdi the same place.

Deputy Chief of Religious Courts Depok Andi Akram said divorce cases are generally difficult to reconcile through mediation process with various problems, such as cheating and economic factors. Because, in general, the divorce case lawsuit brought a long heart injury.

“All family problems do not appear instantly, but two or three years the relationship has been problematic or ‘rusty’. Like the disease has been chronic, so difficult ‘cured’ (reconciled), “said Andi Akram.

Another case, he continued, if new family relationship problems arise, generally more easily reconciled through the mediation process. “For example they are only one or two years of marriage, then there is a family problem, when mediated is usually easy to be reconciled. Including, as a result of his divorce concerning the dispute over common property and the rights of childcare were sued again, also easily mediated. ”

“However, a divorce lawsuit is possible both to sue the common property and the care of the child so that the judicial process is fast and the cost of light is achieved. There are also child custody suits and joint property separated when they agree with the divorce verdict. This is so easy to take legal action, “he added.

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Animals Deserve Respect Up To Folks

by James A. Dacosta on / Animals

Within this gorgeous world, creatures deserve respect just as far as individuals. They’ve too much to live like individuals, human beings. It’s our planet, but it’s their planet too. This world is a member of all animals residing on it. However, many are contrary to this belief, because they consider that animals don’t have even a soul.

Can we have all of the rights, simply because we’re on peak of the food chain? Does that give people the right to eliminate animal statements? Can not we learn our lesson via innumerable wars?

It appears not! A good deal of folks still don’t do it, like a kid who learns. Animals have rights. And they certainly deserve admiration, so that they could live their lives free of worry, abuse, and mistreatment. A life is a lifetime, and it ought to be appreciated. Animals can’t talk for themselves and also for this reason we must become their voice and attention for them. So, shielding them is something that you and I must be pleased with. As people, it’s our duty. All animals have the right to be free from persecution, cruelty, captivity, manipulation, and abuse from humans. As soon as we admire the well-being of critters, we reestablish equilibrium in organic preservation.

Animals Deserve Respect

“Every creature in the world has too much to be here and also have esteem, and appreciate, as me and you.” – Unknown

However, a lot of believe that creatures are on this world for people to exploit, control, rule and use over them. A whole lot of us think that we’re above everything, but we’ve much to understand. But, in addition, there are people who do believe animals deserve admiration as far as individuals. Thus, I am among those individuals who ardently believe animals should get a better location in our planet. They’re aliens. We ought to protect them exactly the exact same way we care for a disabled kid. Both of them don’t have the exact same conscious principles which we do. However they still have to be loved, cared for, respected and protected.

Blind to the Truth

PetsSimply because animals can’t tell us just how they believe, it doesn’t signify they don’t have any rights. 1 day our sun will expand, and which is going to be the end of us. However, we can’t get from a truth. It’s we people that are specifying which standards to place on value. However, that gave us this kind of privilege? In my view, I feel that creatures hold a particular place within our planet and a number of these, particularly our pets, behave as relatives. They don’t have a voice to talk for themselves, and that they deserve honor and to be spared. And I feel we, as individuals should do this for them. Obviously, I don’t feel that animals will need to dominate human culture. However, does this give us the right to become unkind, kill, misuse, starv, torture or slaughter other living animals? It’s prohibited to kill another individual, but it’s fine to harm, mistreat or kill creatures. Exactly how is that any less poor? The majority of us are blind to the reality.

Animals as well as the Arrogant Species

“Animals will be the actual sufferers on this ground. They don’t declare war, so they don’t have weapons, and they don’t wish to ruin people, or inflict faith. However, for many folks, their only offense is they exist” – The Writer SVB

In fact, we’re an arrogant species ourselves to be superior to other species and decreasing some additional courses. Many men and women claim that animals don’t have feelings or possess a soul. They consider these to be unworthy, and just here in order to offer food and demands for ushuman beings, human beings, human beings. Because I’m a youngster, I wondered and wondered why guy believes he’s on peak of the food chain. We’re not quicker, stronger or much more brighter than lots of creatures. Obviously, we could reason and possess a lot of wisdom in our disposal. But then again we’re also the sole arrogant species that have so little esteem and can be bent on murdering the world that sustains our lives. Thus, to me, this type of intellect looks similar to stupidity.

Animals Do Have Feelings

Despite all of the things that occur on earth, our lack of awareness and consideration in this subject indicates that we’re not as improved as we all ought to be. It starts by providing equal attention towards creatures in addition to towards our fellow men. More than a few individuals are nowadays strating to wake up to such details, but we have a very long way to go. Thus, all creatures deserve respect as they can endure and feel pain in precisely the exact same manner and to exactly the exact same level which you and I really do. They could feel joy, pain, anxiety, joy, attention, despair, isolation, and motherly love. They know more than that which we give them credit for. Animals can also be living animals. Why is it that people believe they’re much better is beyond me. Humanity are nowhere if creatures didn’t exist within this planet. The reality is it’s equally as poor killing a creature because it is to kill an individual, it’s murder. Assessing one insect by injury is OK, however, a herd of cattle or even a pride of lions isn’t perfect. Frequently, I think people are equivalent, or even lower, compared to other creatures.

The Many Disrespectful of Animals

We’ve got the capability to think, imagine and invent things, and it’s what caused individuals to prosper in the first location. It’s this kind of unbelievable ability. And we human beings possess imaginations, however, we have self-awareness. Therefore, we’ve got the ability to reflect our presence. Nevertheless we ought to have more compassion and ethics. Really, we’re definitely the most complex of creatures on the planet, however the very disrespectful. We can talk unique languages, cook meals, produce items, drive a car or fly a plane, as well as disagreement over all types of scenarios. Yet, I’m asking you: “When we’re smarter and have a better potential for consideration, why are you currently behaving with such disrespect for this world and the creatures living on it” Hence, the planet would be much better off with no silly means of believing we’re the very best thing on Earth. And we behave like idiots and treat animals as though they were matters! Regardless of what you might say, individuals are creatures on the interior. We search, battle, multiply, team, live, exactly as with any other creature and at times even, at a worse manner.

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5 Tips On Successful Access Control Installation

by ArestePahleviZ on / Animals


Perhaps you are currently planning to install access control systems only. However, there is no harm in providing time to discuss with vendors to find out their opinions and their solutions about your plan so they understand the things you focus on and your goals for setting up. In addition, by discussing, you will gain new knowledge useful for your needs either for now or in the future.


Access control systems are growing rapidly and complex. That is why it is important in having archive records for each element in the built system. Starting from card readers to power supply and network cable. Make sure your vendor makes a record that will make it easier for you if at any time there is a problem or when you want to upgrade / update the security system in the future. If possible, request a copy of the note as your archive.


If the job is directly related to the network, ask the vendor to propose an alternative solution to keep the unwanted things related to your company’s data.


Many are thinking of using an access control software with a standard device for a cost reason rather than investing in a device supported by the firmware. It looks cheaper in the beginning, but when there is a problem, the costs incurred can actually be more expensive. Ask for an alternative technology-based device to your vendor that they think can meet your needs and wants but with an affordable budget.


Consider the possibility in the future whether you will update or improve your current security system. Is there a possibility in the future that your business will need a more sophisticated or integrated security system? Make sure you always use tools and systems that are easy to combine, add and interact.


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What is Access Control?

by ArestePahleviZ on / Animals

Simply Access Control is the ability to control access to a set of resources in a particular area. The term ‘Access Control’ generally refers to systems that can control, monitor and limit the movement of people, assets or vehicles, in, out and around buildings or sites.

The benefits of using an access control system include preventing loss or damage to capital assets and reducing the risk of personal injury to staff and visitors.

Access Control has several principles:

Principle of least privilege

If there is no configuration for the user especially specifically like the individual or group, where the user is located etc, the user should not be able to access that information.

Separation of Duties

Separate the access area to reduce unauthorized data modification to the assets or information of an organization.

Need to Know

This principle is based on the concept of each user who will be given access only to the information they need just to perform the task.

Access control based on model:

Discretionary Access Control

Is a control access model that is set according to the owner’s wishes placed on an ACL (access control list). Using this model is a configuration of granting access based on the user’s needs.

Mandatory Access Control

This model is a highly structured and rigorous model. Users are granted access permissions by classifying the subject (secret, top secret, confidential etc.) and this classification also applies to objects.

Role Based Access Control (RBAC)

Access control is based on user tasks and uses the administrator control to ensure interaction between subject and object.

Ruleset Based Access Control (RSBAC)

Access control is specific to the object to be accessed by the user.

Token Based

Is a list of objects that can be accessed for each user.




Access control based on the technology that is:

Single Sign-On: A technology that allows a user to input a single command to access all primary and secondary network resources.

Kerberos: An authentication protocol that works based on symmetric cryptographic keys used in UNIX systems and becomes the authentication method for windows 2000.

SESAME (Secure European System for Application in a Multi-vendor Environtment): SSO Technology developed for Kerberos enhancements that use cryptographic techniques to protect data exchange and to authenticate subjects to the network.

and the last Access Control based on authentication protocols are:

Password Authentication Portocol (PAP)

It is the most standard authentication form where the authentication uses the username and password transmitted to the system and then matches the username and password in the database. the weakness of this authentication is the username and password sent to the system without any encryption first.

Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP)

Almost the same as the PAP authentication process, the difference is when the username and password are sent to the CHAP system using encryption using MD5 algorithm making it more secure.

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How to Choose the Best Hamster Cages

by Ken Joring on / Animals

Hamster cages should be chosen with the right consideration. If you choose the right cage, then your hamster can have a good quality of life.

Right-Sized Cage

How to Choose the Best Hamster Cages

The first step is to choose a cage with the right size. The enclosure should have a size of 18 inches x 13 inches x 25 inches. This is the minimum cage for hamsters. A 13-inch cage can allow you to fit the wheels required by a Syrian hamster. You can buy a bigger cage than that size because a hamster needs room to play, climb, and run. Hamsters want a separate area to store food, sleep, and go to the bathroom. If you have two hamsters, then you need a bigger cage than the cage. There are some paired dwarf hamsters but you can keep the same sex hamster so that the hamster does not breed in the cage. Campbell and Roborovski can be put in one stable. Syrian Hamsters should not be placed in a cage because the hamster is very territorial.

Well Ventilated Cage

The second step is to choose a cage with good ventilation. If you buy a cage with bad ventilation, then this will cause the buildup of ammonia. Ammonia can be toxic to hamsters. Your hamsters may experience respiratory problems because of the ammonia. A bad cage can make your hamster become sick due to bacterial growth. The cage wire is well ventilated but the plastic hamsters and aquarium enclosure have poor ventilation. Perhaps the hamster will find it difficult to breathe because of poor ventilation. If you see that your hamster is not healthy, then you should replace the cage. More petsolutionfriend

Easy to Clean

You can choose a cage that can be cleaned easily. You should clean the cage twice a week. The easiest type of cage to clean is wire cages. The aquarium is a type of cage that should always be cleaned because of poor ventilation. That’s the right step to choose hamster cages.


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